Lab 8 Pre-Lab Exercise:
1. Inguinal Region
The femoral or mid-inguinal point lies on the inguinal ligament midway between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the pubic symphysis. It is 1.25 cm above the femoral pulse and 1.25 cm below the deep inguinal ring. It marks: 1) the level at which the external iliac artery become the femoral artery, 2) the point at which the lateral plane of the abdomen crosses the inguinal ligament, 3) just below the origin of the inferior epigastric and the deep circumflex iliac arteries from the external iliac, 4) just above the origin of the superficial branches of the femoral artery. The inferior epigastric artery, which can be represented as a line drawn from the femoral point to a point 2.5 cm below and lateral to the umbilicus.
The inguinal canal is 4 cm long and can be marked as a band 1.5 cm wide between the deep and superficial rings. The deep inguinal ring like the femoral point lies midway between ASIS and the pubic symphysis. However, it does not lie on the inguinal ligament but 1.25 cm above it. It is the internal opening of the inguinal canal. The pulse of the femoral artery can be felt in the same position but below the inguinal ligament.
The superficial inguinal ring lies just above and lateral to the pubic crest and extends laterally no further than the medial third of the inguinal ligament. The superficial inguinal ring is the external opening of the inguinal canal. The inguinal canal is larger in men than in women. In men, the superficial inguinal ring can easily be located by following the spermatic cord superiorly to the lower abdominal wall. In women, the pubic tubercle can be palpated and the ring is superior and lateral to it.