Duke University
Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences
Bio 217




General Avian Impacts

Bird Site Assessment

Avian Solutions

About Bats and Wind Turbines

Bat Site Assessments

Bat Data and Diagrams


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Anderson, R., et, al. (2004, September). "Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the Techachapi Pass Wind Resource Area." Natoinal Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/SR-500-36416. Accessed 02/24/07 at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/36416.pdf

Anderson, et. al. (2006, December). "Statewide Guidelines for Reducing Impact to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development."  California Energy Commission report CEC-700-2006-013-SD

Arnett, E., Erickson, W., Kerns, J., Horn, J. (2005). "Relationships Between Bats and Wind Turbines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: An assessment of fatality search protocols, patterns of fatality, and behavioral interactions with wind turbines." Report prepared for Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative. Retrieved on April 23, 2007 from http://www.batcon.org/wind/BWEC2004finalreport.pdf

Arnett, E., Hayes, J., Huso, M. (2006). "Patterns of pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Pennsylvania: 2005 Annual Report." Prepared for the Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative. Retrieved on April 23, 2007 from http://www.batcon.org/wind/BWEC%202005%20Annual%20Report.pdf

AWEA. (2007). "Wind Energy and the Environment." American Wind Energy Association. April 23, 2007, http://www.awea.org/faq/wwt_environment.html

Bat Conservation International. (2007). "Key Facts". Bat Conservation International Online, Retrieved on April 23, 2007 from http://www.batcon.org/home/index.asp?idPage=55&idSubPage=32

Blum, J. (2005, Jan 1). "Researchers Alarmed by Bat Deaths From Wind Turbines." The Washington Post, pg A1.

CFBD. (2005). "Fact Sheet on Altamont Pass Bird Kills". Center for Biological Diversity: San Francisco, CA. Retrieved from http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/swcbd/Programs/bdes/altamont/factsheet.pdf

Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2007). "Bat". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on April 23, 2007 from http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9105976

Erickson, W., Johnson, G., Strickland, D., Young, D., Sernka, K., Good, R. (2001). "Avian Collisons with Wind Turbines: A summary of existing studies and comparisions to other sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States." West Inc., prepared for the National Wind Coordinating Committee.

Erickson, W., Johnson, G., Young, D., Strickland, D., Good, R., Bourassa, M., Bay, K., Sernka, K. (2002). "Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments." West Inc., prepared for Bonneville Power Administration.

FPL. (2007). “Bird and Bats FAQs”. FPL Energy Inc. Retrieved on April 4, 2007 from http://www.fplenergy.com/environment/contents/bird_bat_faqs.shtml

Mabee,T., Cooper, B., Plissner, J., Young, D. (2006) "Nocturnal Bird Migration Over an Appalachian Ridge at a Proposed Wind Power Project" Wildlife Society Bulletin, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp. 682-690.

NWCC. (2004, November). "Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A summary of research results and remaining questions." National Wind Coordinating Committee. Retrieved on April 23, 2007 from http://www.nationalwind.org/publications/wildlife/wildlife_factsheet.pdf

O'Donnell, A. (2007). "Avian Mortality: Altamont wind ops trimmed to cut raptor kills".  Feb. 22, 2007. Land Letter. Accessed 02/26/07 at

Smallwood, K.S., Thelander, C.G. (2005). "Bird Mortality at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - September 2001." National Renewable Energy Laboratory." Retrieved on April 23, 2007 from http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/36973.pdf

USFWS(a). (2007) “Bat Biology”. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved on March 27, 2007 from http://www.fws.gov/endangered/bats/biology.htm

USFWS(b). (2007) “Introduction to Bats”. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved on March 27, 2007 from http://www.fws.gov/endangered/bats/bats.htm