The Following is a set of brief outlines of current lectures:

"Introductory Psychology"
The Course .... (the books, the lectures ...)
-web site
*your grade
*Research Participation Requirement
Integration and the assorted cookie box ...
   > Our first experiment: Making sense of washing clothes
   -integration in method
   -integration in quest
"About Our Nature"
The revelations of hysteria ...
Freud's Recognition of:
   -the Unconscious
   -internal forces
   -developmental process
Theory of Id, Ego, Superego
   -(the iceberg)
   -to party or not to party
"Data from the unconscious, revealed in:"
Freud's Theory is Developmental
Criticisms and Significance
   -Is it science?
   -But importance in interaction of biology and experience:
           -things unaware, things motivational, development &
               dynamic processes and emergent properties
”Freud comes to America ...”
'Instincts' from Duke
    -and the emergence of 'Trait' psychology
  *issue of trait vs situation (“interaction”)
The analysis of Traits (Sheldon as simplified example)
    -reliability & validity
Trait Constellations & Factor Analysis
Traits and Temperment
    -developmental studies of consistency
    -twins (and correlations; see text appendix to

         find out more about ‘correlation’)

”Our Common wants, drives, desires ... “
The motive to Eat ... the motive to be thin
   -a case: obesity
   -a case: anorexia
Motivation as Basic Process (Biological needs)

   - Biological Concept:
      >>feedback and servomechanism (homeostasis)
   - Biological Basis (neural systems?)

      >>Our First Introduction to the A.R.M. Brain model
      >>hypothalamic centers … initial data
 ”Reconsideration of brain centers”
   -(VMH) for satiety ... metabolic issues primary

   -(LH) for hunger ... pathways disrupted

       “spaghetti and meatballs”

     >> and importance of dopamine system (“red”)

           for expression of behavior

                 =recreational drug effects

                 =Parkinsons Disease
”Motivation as Push or Pull ?”

   -“drive reduction”

   - “optimal levels of arousal”
Hedonism and Brain pleasure systems

   >> more on the role of dopamine ?
  -people's reports parallel to Natasha K (Sacks)
Sources of Control (from biological to cultural)
  -innate preferences, neophobia
  -social effects

    >> recognizing our own biases (survey)

(survey review)

Society, Culture & Anorexia Nervosa … final thoughts

“Autonomic Nervous System”

   - outline of divisions

   - behavioral relevance

  >> measuring our heart rate (parasympathetic state)

  >> modulating our heart rate (sympathetic)

     *significance of this direct control from thought

     *danger from “positive” feedback

Interpretation of physiological state and behavior

       in relation to emotion (James’ theory and the “bear”)

Influence of ANS on emotional reaction (Schacter data)

“Abnormality and Psychopathology”

   (Psychotherapeutic Resources … see web link)

    Types of therapists and orientation

  -DSM – IV and major categories of illness
      >> Schizophrenia

           =profound nature and characteristis      

           =clinical illustrations            (video)
“Demons to Disease”
   -Review of major categories and examples
   -Issues with classification
”Models and Therapy …”

     -diathesis: stress (ultimate: proximate)

-----------------------------------TEST 1------9/20/02
Fabulous Constructions”
Darwin & Natural Selection
   - significance of Mechanism of Selection
   - importance of Behavior
The Field of Ethology
Ethology and Species Specific Behavior”
                     (video examples)
   - FAPs

         >releasing stimuli (triggers; “click-whir”)

   - imprinting

         >critical periods (window)
   - attachment in monkeys
Attachment & Bonding (& Love?)”

Parental care (love?)

   - ultimate and proximate explanation

   - experience and hormones in rodents
Male - Female bonding (love?)
   - courtship & ritualization
Mating Systems
   - evolutionary economics
   - mate selection in humans (our data)

(to be continued … out of time)

------------------------------------------------- 9/30/02

Aggression & Violence
  - Evolutionary Considerations

    >maleness …
  - Proximate Mechanisms
      = testosterone
      = serotonin
'Biological' not genetic, 'Biological' not pathology
'Facilitated Communication' (documentary)
   -experience in critical thinking and analysis

   -power of social process


Evolution, Cultural and Social Context
  - Social Cognition
 >How to Change Attitudes

  - esp. cognitive dissonance
 >Stabilizing Attitudes
Making those first Impressions
   - the big bias and others
Social Influence
   - the Milgram Experiment
Understanding Conformity

Understanding Obediance
   - the Stanford Prisoner Study
-----------------------------------TEST 2----10/11/02
How to think about 'Learning'
         -Types as “Event” relationships
    1. Single Event Learning
         -sensitization (the gain)

             >class EVENT!
         -habituation (the contrast)
    2. Event-Event Learning
         -Pavlovian Conditioning
         "Ok... put your books under your seat and
              take out a piece of paper ..."
         -Basic phenomena of learing
                =2nd order conditioning

                =the CR and relation to UR (Zener & Holland)
         - Pavlovian relevance !!
    3. Response Event Learning
          -Operant Conditioning
          -Response selection and the law of effect
          -Similarity in basic phenomena to Pavlovian

                =extinction > recovery
                =generalization, discriminative stimuli
                =conditioned reinforcement (re: 2nd order conditioning)

                =partial reinforcement effect

          -Performance on schedules of reinforcement

The mush that's your brain
         ...what Cajal saw
Visualizing and conceptualizing the brain
    -from spinal cord/a little brain/its organization
    - ... to mamallian neuroanatomy basics
    -brain cells (neurons)

The MPTP Story
    -the importance of neurons and neurotransmitters

   (dopamine, Parkinsons disease, l-dopa, fetal transplants)
Conduction in the neuron (axon)
   (from Galvani to the squid giant axon...)
    -membranes, ions, pumps and resting potential
    -depolarization, threshold, Action Potential (spike)
    -conduction of the Action Potential and characteristics
Experiment measuring Conduction speed
Transmission between neurons

Sherrington and the Synapse
        =reflex as the unit
        =inferring the synapse from behavioral data
   -some electrical recording
        =steps in sequence
        =sites for drug action
    -Significance of the synapse in terms of biological
        accessibility and vulnerability

(a bit more on synapse)

Those Convolutions ...
  (Functions of the Human Cortex)
    -techniques for study (damage, stimulation, monitoring)
    -Localization of Function, the concept ...
    -Primary sensory & motor areas
 (the meaning of "Association areas" ...)
Functional deficits from cortical damage
Functional deficits from cortical damage
    - apraxias
    - agnosias
Language deficits
        =expressive and receptive aphasia (Broca & Wernicke)
Introduction to Sensation & Perception
("the construction of your reality)
    -outline of:  transduction >> experiencing
Processing in sensory systems and the matter of
  sensory coding
    - adaptation
    - contrast
    - color
Processing in sensory systems and the matter of
  sensory coding
    - adaptation
    - contrast
    - color

(Constructing realities ...)

     - where things are (depth)

     - what they're doing (movement)

     - what they are

Bottom-up vs Top-down contributions to perception
-----------------------------------TEST 3----11/8/02

(Lect: Steve Prince)

What is memory?

How to investigate it


 -relating new information to that which is already known


 -Method of loci

MEMORY when broken

MEMORY when it works too well





-Memory without awareness


-False fame effect

-stimulus specific


(Lect: Steve Prince)


 -Ebbinghaus’ curve and decay of traces

 -Retroactive and Proactive Interference

 -Foreign language forgetting over a long time period




-Storage capacity of working memory (7 + or – 2)

-memory span task




-Maintenance rehearsal


 >Anterograde Amnesia ()

 >Retrograde Amnesia ()

 >patient H.M. and surgery

Associative retrieval vs Strategic retrieval


Memory ... how we use it

    -experimental comparisons of WorkingMem/LTM

    -primacy vs recency

=Encoding/Storage Retrieval

    -amnesia patient

5 techniques for enhancing memory

-why they work, how they make use of use

  of our understanding of memory processes


thinking about things … Cognition




       -Cognition models


-PDP processing


   -Solving Problems

            … organization

            … obstacles

    = Stroop; experiment on the intrusion of automaticity

    = Mental Set

… tricks for problem solving

   -Making Decisions


   -Making Decisions (continued)

            ... processes and biases

           … tricks for better decisions

 (Where does thinking come from)

Cognitive Development: Piaget

            - 4 conceptual stages and descriptive evidence

Cognitive Development: other Perspectives

-         problems with Piagetian details …

-         stages vs continuities

-         what’s going on during development

                      … memory issues


Language: Basic Properties

    =what’s really amazing …

      5 Properties of language

… review of properties and examples covering

          -phonemes and morphemes

          -syntax vs sematics

          -surface vs deep structure


Language: Developmental Issues

      =intro with “Wild Child”


Language: Developmental Issues

     (continued consideration of)


-unusual environments

-critical periods

  PLUS review of a few topic concepts Before BREAK



Issues of Intelligence

     - IQ … what it is and how we use it

            = reliability

            = validity


     - many intelligences?

     - and how we think about genes and environment

            ** within group vs between group difference

                 … understand significance


The “null hypothesis” and ESP

   -Duke’s (in)famous Dr. Rhine and parapsychology tasks

   -failure to confirm in any instance of paranormal phenomenon

Video Clip of Henry Gleitman

Review of First 3 Segments for cumulative Exam 5


============Test 4 & 5(opt) =====12/9/02 7pm