This is a sample of the Test for the Fourth Segment of the Course. You should use the test primarily as a guide to the format of the multiple choice tests. Because questions are randomly drawn from a large master list, some of these questions may appear on your test. Please note that is some cases, similar appearing questions actually may be modified versions of the question with different correct answers.
1. You are trying to remember the name of your second grade teacher, but you can’t. After a few days you eventually do remember her name. This example demonstrates that sometimes forgetting is initially due to a failure of:
2. The primacy effect refers to the fact that:
a) the most important items in a list are more likely to be remembered than less important items.
b) the first-presented items in a list are more likely to be remembered than items in the middle of the list.
c) the items presented most recently in a list are more likely to be remembered than items presented earlier.
d) those items in a list which have the greatest impact on the sensory registers are those with the greatest likelihood of recall.
3. In a memory experiment, subjects are given a list of 100 words to study and are told that they only need to remember some of them. Subjects in one group are instructed to remember all the words that start with the letter “H.” Subjects in a second group are instructed to remember all the words that are names of animals (e.g., giraffe, horse, etc.). When tested for recall, subjects in the second group can recall more of the appropriate words. This demonstrates the effect of:
a) changing retrieval cues
b) depth of processing
4. The compatibility principle (also called the encoding-specificity principle) predicts that you will do better on your psychology exams if:
a) you study for the exams here in Zener auditorium
b) you use the method of loci
c) you study in several short sessions rather than a few long sessions
d) you use maintenance rehearsal
5. The “tip-of-the
tongue” phenomenon is evidence for the role of
b) memory search
d) intentional learning
6. After losing the combination lock for your bicycle, you buy a new one. After using the new one for a few weeks, you find the old one and decide to start using that one again. For the next few days you have difficulty getting the combination right. This is an example of:
a) decay of the memory trace
b) consolidation of the memory trace
c) retroactive interference
d) negative transfer
7. The retrieval cue hypothesis cannot account for all forgetting because:
a) we continue to learn new things all the time.
b) memory becomes better with age.
c) forgetting continues to increase as a function of time even when the environment remains unchanged.
d) mnemonics don’t always work.
8. A major problem with eyewitness testimony is the effects of:
c) retroactive interference
9. How would you reply to a friend who said that “Memory is like a video recording; you may misplace the tape but if you can locate it, everything is still there”?
a) The only good evidence for this comes from studies of recall under hypnosis.
b) The only good evidence for this comes from studies in which people have had their temporal lobes electrically stimulated during surgery.
c) The only good evidence for this comes from studies of making free associations while in a very relaxed state.
d) There is no good evidence for this view, and it’s unlikely that memory really works that way.
10. If a patient was experiencing anterograde amnesia due to a head injury, which of these things would he have the most difficulty remembering:
a) how to perform routine tasks such as tying his shoes and dialing a phone
b) the name of the doctor who treated the head injury
c) his present address
d) the address of the house he lived in as a child
11. The famous neurological patient H.M. shows improving performance when given several days of practice at a complex motor task (such as tracing a figure while looking in a mirror) even though he will say each time that he has never performed that task before. This demonstrates the distinction between:
a) anterograde and retrograde memory
b) procedural and declarative memory
c) proactive and retroactive memory
d) inferential and referential memory
12. Which of the following is evidence that visual memory is encoded differently than verbal memory?
a) visual images can be scanned
b) visual images can be rotated
c) visual images include types of detail that verbal memories do not
d) all of the above
13. According to many views of hierarchically arranged systems of semantic memory:
a) retrieval time is related to the number of levels one must pass through in order to access the information.
b) the same information is stored at every level of the hierarchy.
c) retrieval time is independent of the level at which information is stored
d) retroactive inhibition of one category leads to forgetting about all
14. An expert ballet choreographer who is watching a new ballet for the first time can later tell you what 11 different dancers were doing at one point in time, while an average person could probably only tell you what two or three of the dancers were doing. The best explanation for this difference is probably that expert choreographers:
a) can encode each dancer’s complex sequence of movements into a small number of chunks, allowing them to remember information about more dancers.
b) have learned to inhibit interfering heuristics that hinder recall.
c) have a generally larger capacity for visual analysis of all kinds of items than do average people.
d) have much more practice with distributed processing.
15. You need to measure the length of a table, but cannot find a ruler. You fail to immediately recognize that a one dollar bill (which is exactly six inches long) can be used to measure the length of the table relatively accurately. This is an example of:
a) a lack of goal-directed thinking
b) functional fixedness
c) inappropriate analogy
d) inferential inhibition
16. Creative solutions discovered by great scientists and artists often occur at unexpected times and places, and often after a period of intense and unsuccessful effort. This is probably:
a) a result of misremembering and restructuring
b) an effect of breaking a false set, which is helped by changing retrieval cues
c) a result of automatization based on prior development of hierarchical chunks
d) a result of minimizing incubation of the solution set
17. An advantage of solving problems by the use of heuristics rather than algorithms is that:
a) heuristics lead to only one solution
b) heuristics are more certain to result in a correct answer
c) heuristics can be more easily applied to ill-defined problems
d) heuristics are slower, but minimize the possibility of error
18. People who live in rural Kansas might estimate that the number of farmers in the United States is larger than the number of college professors. People who live in Chapel Hill might estimate that the number of professors in the United States is larger than the number of farmers. This is an example of a:
a) framing heuristic
b) representativeness heuristic
c) availability heuristic
d) confirmation bias
19. According to Piaget, the ability to form mental representations is evidenced in the infant by:
a) object permanence
b) deferred imitation
c) sensorimotor schemas
d) all of the above
e) a and b only
20. Studies of infant’s reactions to physically possible and impossible events indicate that infants:
a) have no idea that two objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time
b) were more surprised by the impossible events, showing that they understand that two objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time
c) are equally disinterested in both kinds of events, indicating that their perception of the basic relationships between objects can change from moment to moment
d) none of the above
21. Which of the following is NOT a major property of human language as described in your textbook?
a) Speakers can use creative combinations of words in order to convey a nearly infinite number of meanings.
b) Words and statements are used to refer to various real world objects.
c) The generation of precise statements minimizes the need for a listener to make inferences about the intent of the speaker.
d) Utterances are generated according to abstract principles of structure.
22. Suppose a Japanese linguist asked you: “What does ‘k’ mean in English?” You would reply: “It doesn’t mean anything by itself. It is a not a .”
a) phoneme; morpheme
b) referent; word
c) morpheme; referent
d) signal; phoneme
23. According to prototype theory, a prototype for a concept:
a) embodies the single feature that necessarily defines one as a member of that class.
b) embodies several, but not necessarily all, of the features typical of that class.
c) is an internal representation of a list of features that do not vary within a class.
d) is the only member of a class that displays all features shared by any two other members of the class
24. People often make errors in recalling even those sentences that they heard very recently. When this happens, people are most likely to accurately remember the of the sentence.
a) underlying structure
b) propositional attitude
c) surface structure
d) family resemblance structure
25. The idea that imitation is the method by which children acquire language is contradicted by the observation that:
a) children are not capable of imitation at the age when they begin acquiring language
b) reinforcement, not imitation, appears to represent the process by which children acquire language
c) young children can utter sentences that they have never heard
d) children who do a great deal of verbal imitation acquire language more quickly than those who do little imitation
26. The words uttered by infants in the one-words stage:
a) are function words.
b) usually refer to emotional states.
c) usually refer to frequently encountered objects.
d) are almost always verbs.
27. When learning about categorization and the meaning of words:
a) children usually learn the names of basic-level members of the category (“dog”) before they learn the superordinate (“animals”) and the subordinate (“Collie”).
b) children will mis-apply the name of a specific category member to another member of the category (e.g., a child who has a dog named “Ralph” will call all dogs “Ralph.”)
c) children taught a new word for an object are more apt to consider it the name of the whole object rather than the name for it’s properties (e.g., its color, shape, etc.)
d) all of the above
28. Regarding gestural systems such as American Sign Language, which of the following is true?
a) Children with normal hearing who are born to deaf parents acquire spoken language much more easily than sign language, which requires periods of intensive explicit instruction.
b) Sign languages have hand positions that act as phonemes and morphemes, and have rules for combining positions to create sentences.
c) Studies of gestural languages have shown that the language-like communication truly does depend on the auditory-vocal portions of the nervous system.
d) all of the above
29. A child who moves to a new country and must learn a new language will learn it as well as a native-born child if instruction begins by what age?
30. Attempts to train chimpanzees to use “language” have found that chimps are capable of using , but there is little good evidence for their ability to use .
a) vocal utterance; gestural signals
b) propositional thought; syntax
c) vocabulary; propositional thought
d) syntactical structure; vocabulary
31. A psychologist has designed a new intelligence test and has administered it to a large group of subjects. Each subject took the test two times, separated by an interval of one week. On the second try, most subjects received approximately the same score as they received on the first try. This shows that the test has:
a) standard deviation
32. The admissions board of a music school administers a test and uses the results to decide which applicants are likely to become accomplished musicians by the end of four years of study. They should be most concerned with administering a test that has:
a) construct validity
b) predictive validity
33. Jim is eighteen years old and has a deviation IQ of 100. Susan is eleven years old and also has a deviation IQ of 100. Which of the following statements is true?
a) Susan has a higher IQ than an average eleven-year-old.
b) Susan has a higher mental age than Jim does.
c) Jim and Susan have the same mental age.
d) Jim has the same mental age as the average eighteen-year-old.
34. In designing intelligence scales, Wechsler tried to improve on the Binet scales that were designed for children by:
a) including only items that require verbal skills.
b) designing the test for group administration rather than individual administration.
c) including both verbal and performance subtests.
d) basing the test on the conceptual framework of information processing.
35. “Crystallized intelligence” refers to:
a) aspects of intelligence that are genetically determined and relatively insensitive to environmental influence.
b) an individual’s repertoire of facts, information, and cognitive skills.
c) the reduction in intellectual fluidity that occurs with age
d) the ability to solve novel problems
36. The view that intelligence is a composite of separate abilities is:
a) fluid intelligence theory
b) general-intelligence theory
c) group-factor theory
d) monarchic intelligence theory
37. The existence of a general intelligence “g factor” was inferred by Spearman from:
a) the positive intercorrelations among tests of different intellectual skills
b) the fact that different tests tap different specific abilities
c) a tendency of people to score well on either a verbal or a mathematical test, but not on both
d) high reliability coefficients for individual tests
38. Studies that have attempted to link intelligence with reaction time have found that
a) simple reaction time is more closely related to intelligence than is choice reaction time
b) choice reaction time is more closely related to intelligence than is simple reaction time
c) a correlation between choice reaction time and intelligence decreases as the number of choices goes up
d) both b and c
39. Which of the following is the best evidence for a genetic contribution to intelligence?
a) the high correlation between IQ scores of close relatives
b) the constancy of an individual’s IQ score over time
c) the fact that identical twins tend to have closer IQ scores than fraternal twins
d) the fact that fraternal twins tend to have closer IQ scores than pairs of non-twin siblings
40. If all the children born this year could be raised in exactly identical environments, the variability in their IQ scores when the children are 10 years old would probably:
a) equal zero
b) be considerably reduced
c) be considerably increased
d) be unaffected