Human Rights Photographs Formatted title of Duke Human Rights Center Formatted quote about Human Rights

Slavery and Segregation at Duke

    By Marianne Twu, Duke undergraduate

Prior to the Civil War, Washington Duke and his family worked together farming wheat, oats, and sweet potatoes on over 300 acres of land which had been bought and inherited over the years. The work was strenuous, and for assistance Washington Duke hired slaves from other plantations.1 He owned one slave girl who worked as the housemaid.

During and after the Civil War, the Duke family switched to the farming of tobacco and slowly rose to prominence by establishing the world's greatest tobacco empire.


The separate entrance for black
patrons is still visible on Durham's
Carolina Theater.[see more]

James Buchanan Duke continued the legacy of his father by establishing the Duke Endowment in 1924. The $40 indenture paved the way for the transformation of Trinity College into Duke University.2 At a time of intense racial polarization, James B. Duke's Indenture did not explicitly set up a system of racial segregation within the university, indicating that his views on segregation may not have been completely aligned with the public sentiment of the time. Indeed, it was a well known fact that a black man by the name of Julian Francis Abele was in fact the chief designer of the chapel and other buildings of Trinity College, later to become Duke University.3

University policy at the time excluded blacks from admissions and also restricted blacks from using certain campus facilities such as the dining halls and dorm housing. While these restrictions were common practice, they were in fact not written explicitly in the official policy.4 In 1948, a group of divinity school students petitioned the divinity school to desegregate - the first concerted effort to push for the desegregation of Duke's admission policy.5

After years of deliberation between University leadership, faculty and students, the Board of Trustees passed a resolution opening Duke's graduate schools to black students on March 8, 1961. Six students enrolled that fall for the 1961-1962 school year. Three withdrew after registration but Walter Johnson Jr. and David Robinson II went on to complete their law degrees, and R.L. Speaks his divinity degree.6

It was not until almost a year later, on June 2, 1963, that the Board of Trustees finally resolved to open the undergraduate college to black students. In Sept. 1963, five black undergraduates enrolled: Gene Kendall, Mary Mitchell, Cassandra Smith, Nathaniel White, and Wilhelmina Reuben.7 After 15 years of deliberation by the Board of trustees, faculty, and students, the University was finally completely desegregated.

1 - "A Brief History of the Duke Family and its Tobacco Empire. [www.ibiblio.org/dukehome/family.html]
2 - "A Brief History of the Duke Family and its Tobacco Empires. [www.ibiblio.org/dukehome/family.html]
3 - "Julian Abele, an architectural pioneer!" The African American Registry. [aaregistry.com/african_american_history/2528/Julian_Abele_an_architectural_pioneer]
4 - Kotelanski, Jorge. "Prolonged and Patient Efforts: The Desegregation of Duke University, 1948-1963." 1990. Duke University Archives. p 10.
5 - Ibid.,13-14.
6 - Ibid.,136-137.
7 - Ibid., 140.


Duke Human Rights Center - rights@duke.edu
235 John Hope Franklin Center, Franklin Humanities Institute
2204 Erwin Rd., Box 90403, Duke University
Durham, NC 27708-0403
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